This paper systematically investigates the characteristics of different output metrics for a weakly coupled three degree-of-freedom microelectromechanical systems resonant sensor. The key figures-of-merit examined are sensitivity and linear range. The four main output metrics investigated are mode frequency shift, amplitude difference, amplitude ratio, and eigenstate shift. It is shown from theoretical considerations, equivalent RLC circuit model simulations and electrical measurements, that there is a strong tradeoff between sensitivity and linear range. For instance, the amplitude difference has the best sensitivity but the worst linear range, whereas frequency shift has the widest linear range but the lowest sensitivity. We also show that using the vibrational amplitude ratio as an output metric provides the best balance between sensitivity and linear range.
[IEEE][Researchgate full texts]